The Swords (Alexander III) King of Macedonia who succeeded his father very young, Philip II, killed in 336 a. C. He had prepared to reign, providing military experience and entrusting their intellectual Aristotle. Alexander spent the first years of his reign to impose his authority over the people under Macedonia, who had taken the death of Philip to rebel. He launched his army against the powerful extensive Persian Empire thus continuing the company that his father had started shortly before his death.
Alejandro ran victorious Asia Minor (Battle of Granicus, 334), Siria (Issos, 333), Fenicia (Siege of Tyre, 332), Egypt and Mesopotamia (Gaugamela, 331), to take the Persian capital of Susa (331) and Persepolis (330). Darius III murdered, the last Achaemenid Emperor, by one of his satraps (Besso) to avoid surrender, he continued the resistance against Alexander in eastern Iran. The following image shows the type Falcata Sword Alexander the Great used in their contests.
Having conquered the capital of Persia, Alejandro licensed to the Greek troops who had accompanied him during the campaign and proclaimed himself emperor holding the position of the Achaemenid. Then launched new campaigns of conquest to the east: defeated and killed and submitted Bess Parthia, Air, Drangiana, Aracosia, Bactriana y Sogdiana. Owner of central Asia and now in Afghanistan, set out to conquer India (327-325), housing and a project of global domination. Although incorporated western India (vassal of King Poros), had to resign to continue moving toward the east by the mutiny of his troops, exhausted by so long a succession of conquests and battles.
The early death of Alexander the 33 years old, malaria victim, prevented him from consolidating the empire that had created and re-launch his conquests. The empire did not survive the death of its creator. Succession struggles broke out that killed the wives and children of Alexander, until the empire was divided among his generals (the Diadochi): Seleuco, Ptolemy, Antígono, Lysimachus and Cassander.
The resulting states were called Hellenistic kingdoms, that continued during the following centuries the ideal of Alexander to move to the East Greek culture, left unnoticed while penetrating eastern cultures in the Mediterranean.